Amateurfunk in Palästina und im Nahen Osten

1999: Palästina wird E4

1999: Palästina wird E4Artikel 1, DXCC-Kriterien (Fassung 1979)
"An independent country or nation-state having sovereignty (that is, a body politic or society united together, occupying a definite territory and having a definite population, politically organized and controlled under one exclusive regime, and engaging in foreign relations-including the capacity to carry out obligations of international law and applicable international agreements) constitutes a separate DXCC country by reason of Government. This may be indicated by membership in the United Nations (UN). However, some nations that possess the attributes of sovereignty are not members of the UN, although these nations may have been recognized by a number of UN-member nations. Recognition is the formal act of one nation committing itself to treat an entity as a sovereign state. There are some entities that have been admitted to the UN that lack the requisite attributes of sovereignty and, as a result, are not recognized by a number of UN-member nations.
Other entities which are not totally independent may also be considered for separate DXCC country status by reason of Government. Included are Territories, Protectorates, Dependencies, Associated States, and so on. Such an entity may delegate to another country or international organization a measure of its authority (such as the conduct of its foreign relations in whole or in part, or other functions such as customs, communications or diplomatic protection) without surrendering its sovereign status. DXCC country status for such an entity is individually considered, based on all the available facts in the particular case. In making a reasonable determination as to whether a sufficient degree of sovereignty exists for DXCC purposes, the following characteristics (list not necessarily all-inclusive) are taken into consideration:
(a) Membership in specialized agencies of the UN, such as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
(b) Authorized use of ITU-assigned call sign prefixes.
(c) Diplomatic relations (entering into international agreements and/or supporting embassies and consulates), and maintaining a standing army.
(d) Regulation of foreign trade and commerce, customs, immigration and licensing (including landing and operating permits), and the issuance of currency and stamps.
An entity that qualifies under Point 1, but consists of two or more separate land areas, will be considered a single DXCC country (since none of these areas alone retains an independent capacity to carry out the obligations of sovereignty), unless the areas can qualify under Points 2 or 3."

Im April 1998 wurde die Definition einer "Politische Einheit" jedoch modifiziert.

Artikel 1, DXCC-Kriterien (Fassung 1998)

Political Entities are those areas which are separated by reason of government or political division. They generally contain an indigenous population which is not predominantly composed of military or scientific personnel. An Entity will be added to the DXCC List as a Political Entity if it meets any one of the following three criteria:
a. The entity is a UN Member State.
b. The entity has been assigned a callsign prefix bloc by the ITU. A provisional prefix bloc assignment may be made by the Secretary General of ITU. Should such provisional assignments not be ratified later by the full ITU, the Entity will be removed from the DXCC List.
c. The Entity has a separate IARU Member Society.
New Entities satisfying any one or more of the three conditions above will be added to the DXCC List by administrative action as of their "Event Date." Entities qualifying under this section will be referred to as the "Parent" when considering separation under the section "Geographical Separation." Only Entities in this group will be acceptable as a Parent for separation purposes."

Zumindest eines von drei Kriterien musste also erfüllt werden:
- Die Anerkennung Palästinas durch Aufnahme in die UNO - das ist zunächst illusorisch;
- Die Anerkennung einer Amateurfunk-Organisation durch die IARU. Sie könnte nur mit Billigung Israels erfolgen und kam daher ebenfalls nicht in Betracht.
- Hingegen bestand die beste Chance, dass Palästina aufgrund der Zuweisung eines ITU-Rufzeichenblocks als DXCC-Einheit anerkannt werden müsste.

Und in der Tat:
Die Internationale Fernemelde-Union ITU wies mit Operational Bulletin No.685 vom 1. Februar 1999 Palästina den Rufzeichenblock E4A-E4Z zu, unter Berufung auf die Resolution PLEN/3 der Plenipotentiary Conference der ITU in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1998.
Palästina wurde daraufhin unter Berufung auf Punkt 1/b ab 1. Februar 1999 in die DXCC-Liste aufgenommen.
Der einzige anerkannte Prefix ist E4, da ZC6-Rufzeichen für Großbritannien und seine Übersee-Besitzungen registriert ist. Gemäß der DXCC-Regeln zählen Kontakte mit der ehemaligen Politischen Einheit Palästina vor dem 30. Juni 1968 nicht, da Territorium und staatliche Administration von heute und damals nicht übererinstimmen.

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